"Too many trusted medical professionals like doctors, nurses, and pharmacists have chosen to violate their oaths and put greed ahead of their patients", Sessions told reporters in Washington, D.C.
The Justice Department said the people charged were illegally billing Medicare, Medicaid and the health insurance programme that serves members of the armed forces, retired service members and their families.
"You can judge a person by the company they keep and tonight - Attorney General Jeff Sessions is choosing to spend his time speaking in front of one of the country's leading anti-LGBTQ hate groups", said Joel Kasnetz, a spokesman for the Democratic National Committee (DNC).
"We are sending a clear message to criminals across the country: we will find you".
Sessions said the operation began with tips from people in the affected communities and from "very sophisticated computer programs that identify outliers".
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The names of those arrested weren't immediately available, and it did not appear that California was a primary focus of the action, despite recurring reports of fraudulent practices in Southern California's large addiction-treatment industry.
In one instance, a fake drug rehabilitation facility in Palm Beach, Florida, recruited addicts using gift cards, visits to strip clubs and drugs so it could filed claims for more than $5.8 million in false tests and treatments, Sessions said. Those arrested included 120 doctors and other people charged for their roles in prescribing and distributing opioid painkillers.
"The nation is in the midst of a crisis", McCabe said. In Michigan, the USA charged 32 people with billing Medicare for procedures and prescriptions that were medically unnecessary and where some of the narcotics were resold on the street.
Sessions and Price were joined at the conference by acting FBI Director Andrew McCabe, DEA Director Chuck Rosenberg and HHS Inspector General Daniel Levinson.
The Justice Department calls it the largest operation of its kind in USA history, involving more than a thousand law enforcement officers across the country targeting medical professionals. and more than 200 clinics or hospitals now in the process of being suspended or shut down.