This undated picture shows N Korean leader Kim Jong-Un (C) inspecting the test of a new weapon system.
Mr Trump, who has sought more help from China to rein in its neighbour and ally, said on Twitter that "North Korea has shown great disrespect for their neighbor, China, by shooting off yet another ballistic missile.but China is trying hard!"
The missile landed in Japan's economic zone where fishing and cargo ships are active, the Japanese government and the South Korean military said.
Trump's comments came at the G7 summit in a meeting with Prime Minister Shinzo Abe of Japan, which along with South Korea is most immediately threatened by North Korean belligerence.
Prior to Tuesday, the USA military had conducted 17 tests of its missile-defense system and nine were successful.
While North Korean scientists could be tweaking them - for instance, developing a new solid-fuel short-range missile - the North tests these shorter-range missiles much less than it does its less dependable, longer-range missiles.
Following a joint drill carried out by South Korea and the United States on Monday, Pyongyang lashed out and accused the allies of preparing to drop a nuclear bomb over North Korea.
However, South Korea's military and experts questioned the claim because the North had technical constraints, such as a lack of satellites, to operate a terminal-stage missile guidance system properly.
South Korea fires warning shots at suspected drone
Security Council sanction commitments toward North Korea and will continue to play a constructive role in negotiations, Wang said. South Korea's new President Moon Jae-In speaks during a press conference at the presidential Blue House in Seoul on May 10, 2017.
While the USA administration works to solidify a policy to deal with North Korea's nuclear ambitions, the new liberal president of South Korea has signalled he will be flexible in expanding civilian exchange with the North.
North Korea confirmed its test-firing of a precision-guided ballistic missile was "successful", the state-run news agency KCNA reported Tuesday, a day after the projectile landed in waters provocatively close to Japan.
The U.S. military was to conduct its first-ever test Tuesday to shoot down an oncoming intercontinental ballistic missile in an effort to defend better against growing missile threats from North Korea.
Despite Trump's strident warnings to North Korea, Secretary of Defense James Mattis said in an interview that aired Sunday before the latest launch that a war with North Korea would be "catastrophic".
"This regime is a threat to the region, to Japan, to South Korea".
And if a diplomatic solution isn't possible, what would a war with North Korea look like?
North Korea has defied a United Nations resolution banning all nuclear and missile activity, ramping up the pace of its tests in recent months.
"It is a severe threat to the peace and stability of not only the Korean Peninsula, but also the worldwide community", a statement from South Korea's Foreign Affairs Ministry said.