President Vladimir Putin received Lavrov and Tillerson at the Kremlin Palace, spokesman Dmitry Peskov told reporters later. He said he doesn't have have chemical weapons anymore, and that if he did, he wouldn't use them.
Both he and Lavrov said that a range of issues were discussed - most notably the crises in Syria, North Korea and Ukraine - and that both sides had agreed to establish a working group to examine, as Lavrov said, "the irritants" in relations between the United States and Russian Federation.
"To my colleagues from Russian Federation, you are isolating yourselves from the global community every time one of Assad's planes drop another barrel bomb on civilians and every time Assad tries to starve another community to death", she said.
But he said it was an open question where relations go from here.
This view is a change from his stance just two weeks ago, when he said removing Assad was not a priority.
Trump had spoken warmly of Russian Federation on the campaign trail, but since he came to office in January ties have chilled and the fallout from the alleged chemical weapons attack in Syria threw them into crisis.
"I think it's certainly possible".
The less-than-positive assessments of relations by both Trump and Tillerson reflected the former Cold War foes' inability to forge greater cooperation, as Trump until recently has advocated.
Russia's top diplomat accused the United States of carrying out an unlawful attack against Syrian President Bashar Assad's forces.
Of Assad, Trump added: "This is an animal".
It was also the first official trip by a prominent member of Mr Trump's cabinet.
"We have not seen a single fact, or even a hint of facts", he said. "No one showed us anything, no one said anything, although we repeatedly asked to produce the details on which these unfounded accusations lie".
Putin meanwhile accused Assad's opponents of planning to stage chemical attacks to be blamed on Damascus in order to lure the United States deeper into the conflict.
McCain: US Administration 'Partially to Blame' for Chemical Attack in Syria
Russian Federation says that a conventional airstrike hit a rebel depot containing "toxic substances". Trump later suggested on Twitter the Shayrat runways had not been the primary missile targets.
Mr Tillerson affirmed the agencies' findings on Wednesday, saying they are serious enough to warrant additional sanctions. -Russian relations. "The working level of confidence in Russian-American relations, especially at the military level, under the administration of Donald Trump, has not improved, but rather worsened", he said.
"There is a low level of trust between our two countries", Tillerson added.
Tillerson said the US sees no role for Assad in a resolution to the Syrian conflict, his reign is "coming to an end" and he could be subject to global prosecution as a war criminal.
Adding further fuel to rising tensions: the White House's move to circulate declassified USA intelligence accusing Moscow of aiding Assad's government in covering up the chemical attack. One was the United States re-affirm it is committed to attacking the Nusra Front, an al-Qaida affiliated terrorist group that is also fighting to remove Assad from power in Syria. He says that makes it hard to have clarity about US positions. He also said that Putin had agreed to reactivate a U.S.
But since Trump came to office in January, ties have chilled, and the fallout from the alleged chemical weapons attack in Syria has thrown them into crisis.
Mr Lavrov said that the US had provided no evidence that it interfered in the 2016 election despite repeated requests.
Russian Foreign Minister Sergey Lavrov blasted US claims that it has "irrefutable evidence" of election interference. Russia, which backs Assad's regime, has claimed he is not responsible.
"We believe it is fundamentally important not to let these actions happen again".
Trump and others have indeed threatened similar action.
In an interview with Fox News aired Wednesday, Trump said he broke the news of the USA missile strike on Syria during a dinner with Xi and that the Chinese leader "was OK with it" because it was in response to the use of "gases" and victims had included young children and babies. Right now we're not getting along with Russian Federation at all.
"A successful ouster of a dictator is for me very hard to remember", Lavrov said.
Only weeks ago, it appeared that Mr Trump, who praised Mr Putin throughout the USA election campaign, was poised for a potentially historic rapprochement with Russian Federation.
Moscow's hostility to Trump administration figures is a sharp change from past year, when Putin hailed Trump as a strong figure and Russian state television was consistently full of effusive praise for him.