The 29-year-old missed Tuesday's 2-0 loss to Bolivia and will also be banned for Argentina's next three World Cup qualifiers, unless an appeal is successful.
Brazil lead the standings on 33 points with four matches to play, 11 points ahead of arch-rivals Argentina, who slipped back into fifth after a 2-0 defeat away by Bolivia without suspended captain Lionel Messi.
Barcelona also expressed their surprise at the FIFA Disciplinary Committee's action to ban Messi for four matches and offered him their support.
Argentina, with 22 points, came into the contest with Bolivia in third place in the South American qualifiers, but have dropped to fourth following Colombias 2-0 win Tuesday over Ecuador. Barcelona superstar Neymar scored a dazzling solo goal after Liverpool forward Philippe Coutinho had opened the scoring for Brazil as the five-time world champions notched an eighth straight qualifying victory.
Earlier in the day, Barcelona released a statement expressing their "surprise and indignation" at the sanction.
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In a game which was initially in the favour of one team, things took an immediate turn for the worse when Messi's ban was announced.
Argentina are now fifth in the table, with the top four being able to qualify. "But we're left angry and sad because (Messi) will not be with the team".
Jorge Miadosqui, Argentina team secretary, said: "The AFA (Argentinian Football Association) is going to appeal this decision". Despite video evidence showing that Messi was looking at the linesman while making those comments, the Argentine said that wasn't the case.
Former Argentina coach Cesar Luis Menotti told Cadena Ser: "He made a mistake and he should be punished, but not with four games".
"Someone should explain to Messi that he is not responsible for making Argentina win but rather to help Argentina play better".
Messi won't return to global duty until Argentina's final fixture against Ecuador, by which time the damage could already be done. "He could have played, he travelled to play, he should have played".